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Radio Frequency (RF)
Signals with a repetition rate above audible range, but below the frequencies associated with heat and light.

Random Access Memory (the equivalent of normal computer memory).

A device a cardholder presents his access card to that will read the card's encoded data and transmit it to an access control unit (ACU). The ACU then make a decision as to what action to take as a result of that card read.

Request to Exit (REX)
A device used to disable a door alarm, thus allowing valid exit through an access controlled door. Usually a motion detector but can also be a pushbutton. On each access door equipped with only one card reader (or only an entry reader will be used during certain hours), it is necessary to provide free exit through the monitored door without creating a Door Forced alarm. The request to exit button (usually when electro-magnets are used) or the request to exit motion detector (usually when electric strikes are used) sends a pre-warning signal to the door controller that the door is going too open and that this will be a normal operation of a person exiting. When the door is locked, the access controller supervises the door contact and will report a "Forced door" alarm if the door is opened without using a card. To provide free exit from the premises without causing an alarm, the access controller must know whether the door is opened by someone breaking in or someone exiting. To do this, an "Exit Motion Detector" is installed above the door on the inside. When an individual leaving the premises approaches the door, the detector will send that information to the access controller which will record the event as an authorized exit.

A method of communication without physical contact. Accomplished through the use of radio waves (1997, Auto ID Service Providers).

Radio Frequency Identification: a technology which allows an object or person to be identified at a distance, using radio waves to energise and communicate with some form of tag or card.

Data transmission standard using +/- 12 volt transitions to transmit digital data.

Data transmission standard using differential voltage levels to send and receive data on a shielded, twisted pair of wire in a multi-drop configuration up to four thousand feet long. Highly immune to electrical noise.

Request to Exit. A circuit controlled by a push button installed within a secured area which, when pressed, allows a user to exit the area. RTE's should always be redundant, that is, a second method should be used to allow an exit.

Request to Send. An RS-232 output from the system. It tells a device attached to it that its OK to send data. Generally connected to the CTS of the sending device.

Receive Data. An RS-232 input that receives data from a transmitting device. This Input must be connected to the TXD output of the transmitting device.


The rapid movement of the election beam in a pickup device of a camera or in the CRT of a television receiver. It is formatted in a line-for-line manner across the photo sensitive surface which produces or reproduces the video picture. When referred to a video surveillance field, it is the panning or the horizontal camera motion.

Most of the system's operations are based on time and/or day of the week. The system can manage up to 100 different schedules. They are defined by the system administrator according to specific requirements (automatic unlocking, point monitoring, etc.). Each schedule can be composed of up to 4 different intervals (start-stop times) valid for any number of week days or holidays.

A number indicating the degree of similarity or correlation of a biometric match. Traditional authentication methods ? passwords, PINs, keys, and tokens - are binary, offering only a strict yes/no response. This is not the case with most biometric systems. Nearly all biometric systems are based on matching algorithms that generate a score subsequent to a match attempt. This score represents the degree of correlation between the verification template and the enrollment template. There is no standard scale used for biometric scoring: for some vendors a scale of 1-100 might be used, others might use a scale of ? to 1; some vendors may use a logarithmic scale and others a linear scale. Regardless of the scale employed, this verification score is compared to the system’s threshold to determine how successful a verification attempt has been.

Sensitivity (pickup device)
The amount of current developed per unit of incident light. It can be measured in watts with the projection of an unfiltered incandescent source of light at 2870 K degrees to the pickup device surface area. It can be then expressed in foot-candles.

Single Error Rates
Error rates state the likelihood of an error (false match, false non-match, or failure to enroll) for a single comparison of two biometric templates or for a single enrollment attempt. This can be thought of as a "single" error rate.

Serial Number
A unique combination of digits and/or letters. All system software (firmware) and hardware is serialized

A system unit that is programmed to be part of a network of systems and under control of a master system.

Smart Card
A card which incorporates a microprocessor chip and some form of storage. By extension, and in common usage, any form of chip card. A card containing a microchip that can store significantly larger amounts of data than a standard magstripe or proximity card. Bank account details, Social Security Numbers and employee identification numbers are examples of data that can be

A plate fastened to the door frame into which the bolts project.

Strike Box
A housing used in back of a strike to enclose the bolt or bolt openings

The process whereby a user provides behavioral or physiological data in the form of biometric samples to a biometric system. A submission may require looking in the direction of a camera or placing a finger on a platen. Depending on the biometric system, a user may have to remove eyeglasses, remain still for a number of seconds, or recite a pass phrase in order to provide a biometric sample.

Synchronous Multimodality
the use of multiple biometric technologies in a single authentication process. For example, biometric systems exist which use face and voice simultaneously, reducing the likelihood of fraud and reducing the time needed to verify.


An electronic device (contactless) that can communicate with a reader by means of a radio frequency signal.

Following an authorized and credentialed person through an access control point without having or using a separate valid credential.

a mathematical representation of biometric data. A template can vary in size from 9 bytes for hand geometry to several thousand bytes for facial recognition.

A predefined number, often controlled by a biometric system administrator, which establishes the degree of correlation necessary for a comparison to be deemed a match.

Time & Attendance

The Time Attendance Mode is used to record the Clock In / Clock Out time of the employees, and it is very useful to avoid the buddy-punching problem. The major difference is that in this mode, the device is not used to control the door strike, and there is no time & terminal restriction.

"A business or payment event for the exchange of value for goods and services". Any event that occurs on a PAC for Windows system is called a transaction. All transactions which originate from a door controller are reported to the PC, and stored on the hard disk for later analysis. In addition, the PAC for Windows system then decides the fate of each transaction - display on screen, printer, generate an alarm, etc.

A physical barrier device used to manage pedestrian traffic flow and access control at a security checkpoint.

Transmit Data. An RS-232 output that sends data to a receiving device. This output must be connected to the RXD input of the receiving device.


Underwriters Laboratories. An organization that certifies the safety and functionality of electrical devices.

Verification (1:1, matching, authentication)
The process of establishing the validity of a claimed identity by comparing a verification template to an enrollment template. Verification requires that an identity be claimed, after which the individual’s enrollment template is located and compared with the verification template. Verification answers the question, “Am I who I claim to be??Some verification systems perform very limited searches against multiple enrollee records. For example, a user with three enrolled finger-scan templates may be able to place any of the three fingers to verify, and the system performs 1:1 matches against the user’s enrolled templates until a match is found. One-to-few. There is a middle ground between identification and verification referred to as one-to-few (1:few). This type of application involves identification of a user from a very small database of enrollees. While there is no exact number that differentiates a 1:N from a 1:few system, any system involving a search of more than 500 records is likely to be classified as 1:N. A typical use of a 1:few system would be access control to sensitive rooms at a 50-employee company, where users place their finger on a device and are located from a small database.

Video Verification
This is a software feature that allows an operator to compare a persons appearance with that in a personnel database.

A keyholder who is only allowed access for a limited number of days. The system will automatically restrict the keyholders access to the allowed dates.

Virtual Card (JC32)
This is an implementation of the JavaCard Virtual Machine (JCVM) specifications for a 32bit processor. It behaves in all aspects identical to the JCVM on the actual smart cards, down to the resource restrictions (RAM and EEPROM) and transactions semantics found on a real card. The 32bit JCVM can be run in two modes: One emulates a real JCOP card in all regards including the (reduced) speed on that 8-bit processor. The other mode only emulates the resource restrictions, but otherwise executes at the speed the 32bit processor permits. The second configuration is therefore meant to be used during applet development and testing to ensure fast turnaround times, while the first one is meant to get a feeling for where tuning will be needed before bringing the applet onto a real card. As this is a single program, be aware that no state is stored between executions of the 32bit JCVM: Anything loaded will be lost once the Virtual Card is stopped.

A circuit in the System that prevents microprocessor latch up. The watchdog circuit minimizes the likelihood that voltage transients will "crash" the system.

A communication protocol widely accepted as an industry standard in the manufacturing of access control equipment. Wiegand data is typically the protocol used between the reader and the host panel.

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